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It doesn’t matter how talented your sales team is, or how hard you work. Without a roadmap for success, you’re making your life a lot harder than it needs to be.

A sales process is a set of repeatable steps that your sales team takes to convert a prospect into a customer. Having a standardized sales process adds structure and accountability to your sales activities, leading to a higher win rate and shorter sales cycles.

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conducted by Vantage Point Performance and the Sales Management Association, B2B companies that defined a formal sales process experienced 18% more revenue growth compared to companies that didn’t.

But make no mistake: The benefits of having a sales process extend far beyond your company’s bottom line. Here are eight key advantages of building a standardized sales process for your B2B sales team.

Related: 7 signs you need a better sales process [infographic]

Knowing what needs to be done at each stage of the sale gives sales reps a huge advantage over salespeople who wing it every time out. Without clearly defined steps and milestones that guide sellers from prospecting to presenting to offering the sale, even the most promising deals can slip away due to disorganization.

A standardized sales process makes training sales reps fast, simple, and nearly foolproof, by showing salespeople what they need to do in various sales situations. Even a rookie seller can quickly get up to speed and be successful once he or she learns the basic steps in an organization’s sales process.

This also takes some of the training burden off of the sales manager. When the entire sales team is following the same roadmap, any member of the old guard can pass on their knowledge and guidance to new hires when they’re first getting started.

Related: How to Build a Sales Process—The Complete Guide

How to Build a Sales Process—The Complete Guide

Successful sales teams continuously refine their sales processes based on measurable data and constant feedback. For example, understanding where most of your deals are getting stuck or slipping away can help you identify the root cause of those stalled deals and take steps to address the issue.

Having a formalized sales process ensures that your team focuses its efforts on the activities that generate the most revenue. Without a process in place, deals are simply won or lost, and it’s hard to know which specific actions are working or failing.

A repeatable sales process gives sales teams much more consistency in winning deals. Having a more accurate sense of your win rate allows you to dependably forecast how many sales you’ll close from a given number of leads, and helps sales managers set realistic quotas .

Influence is an innovative Swedish management consulting company. We are genuinely interested in people and problem solving. And in boosting performance in organizations through Collective Intelligence.

Pioneering Collective Intelligence

Increasingly tasks are performed by groups. And groups are taking more and more responsibility for decision making and execution. The potential in increasing groups’ efficiency is enormous. We are pioneers in the field and help our clients seize this potential and develop Collective Intelligence.


Increasingly tasks are performed by groups. And groups are taking more and more responsibility for decision making and execution. The potential in increasing groups’ efficiency is enormous. We are pioneers in the field and help our clients seize this potential and develop Collective Intelligence.


The Art of Influence

Collectively intelligent teams make better decisions. They are also better than others at executing decision made. At Influence we make management teams, groups and entire organizations collectively intelligent using research-based methods. We call this the art of Influence.


Collectively intelligent teams make better decisions. They are also better than others at executing decision made. At Influence we make management teams, groups and entire organizations collectively intelligent using research-based methods. We call this the art of Influence.


Creating Collective intelligence

Today’s organizations are often highly complex. The complexity makes efficient microsystems the key to organizational performance. We are pioneers within Collective Intelligence and have the knowledge, approaches and tools to improve the quality of all microsystems.


Today’s organizations are often highly complex. The complexity makes efficient microsystems the key to organizational performance. We are pioneers within Collective Intelligence and have the knowledge, approaches and tools to improve the quality of all microsystems.


Unleash the power of digital knowledge exchanges

To survive in today’s ever-changing environment, organisations must be increasingly productive, agile and innovative. This Point of View illustrates the opportunities that have arisen with the current smorgasbord of digital collaboration tools while also providing you with strategic, structural and cultural advice on how to take advantage of their full potential.





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» Types of Differential and How They Work

Types of Differential and How They Work

Like most things on modern automobiles, the simple piece of gearing known as a differential has seen constant refinement and experimentation - leading to a range of types each with their own advantages and disadvantages.

The concept of the differential – that is, to allow wheels mounted on the same axle to rotate independently of each other – is an ancient design, with the first known instance of its use recorded in China during the 1 millennium BC.

Although this was long before the invention of the automobile, carts, wagons and chariots still suffered from the same problem of one wheel slipping or dragging when cornering – increasing wear and damaging roads.

The advent of engines powering wheels to propel a vehicle instead of merely dragging them via horse added a new problem to overcome – how to allow independent rotation while still being able to power both wheels.

The earliest automobiles didn’t bother trying, they simply powered only one wheel on the axle. But this was far from ideal as it meant they were underpowered and encountered frequent problems with traction on anything other than firm, level ground.

Eventually this led to the development of the Open Differential before other more complicated types were developed to overcome more complex driving conditions.

Open Differential:

A differential in its most basic form comprises two halves of an axle with a gear on each end, connected together by a third gear making up three sides of a square. This is usually supplemented by a fourth gear for added strength, completing the square.

This basic unit is then further augmented by a ring gear being added to the differential case that holds the basic core gears – and this ring gear allows the wheels to be powered by connecting to the drive shaft via a pinion.

This gearing arrangement makes up the open type differential, and is the most common type of automotive differential from which more complicated systems are derived.

The benefit of this type is mostly limited to the basic function of any differential as previously described, focusing primarily on enabling the axle to corner more effectively by allowing the wheel on the outside of the turn to move at a faster speed than the inside wheel as it is cover more ground. It does also benefit from its basic design being relatively cheap to produce.

The disadvantage of this type is that because the torque is split evenly between both wheels, the amount of power able to be transmitted through the wheels is limited by the wheel with the lowest amount of grip.

Once the traction limit of both wheels combined is reached, the wheel with the lowest amount of traction will begin to spin – reducing that limit even further as there is even less resistance from the already spinning wheel.

Locked Differential:

The locked or locking differential is a variant found on some vehicles, primarily those that go off road. It is essentially an open differential with the ability to be locked in place to create a fixed axle instead of an independent one. This can happen manually or electronically depending on technology in the vehicle.

The benefit of a locked differential is it is able to gain a considerably greater amount of traction than an open differential. Because the torque is not equally split 50/50 it can channel more torque to the wheel that has the better traction - and is not limited by the lower traction of the other wheel at that moment.

Because you are unlikely to travelling at speed and are usually travelling over uneven ground, the issue of tyre wear around corners on fixed axles is less of a problem.

One disadvantage of locked diffs is called binding, which occurs when excess rotational energy (torque) is built up within the drive train and needs releasing – typically achieved by the wheels leaving the ground to reset the position. Or by simply releasing the locks once they are no longer needed.

Imagine a long cardboard tube held at each end, and then twisted the tube in opposite directions to the point the tube couldn’t withstand the force anymore and folds and tears – that’s binding. It happens because the wheels are moving at different speeds twisting the axles - but the load on the wheels and their increased traction is enough to prevent the tyres slipping to release the pressure.

Welded/Spool Differential:

Welded differentials are essentially the same as a locked differential, only it has been permanently welded from an open differential into a fixed axle (also known as a spool diff.) . This is usually only done in specific circumstances where the characteristics of the locked diff/fixed axle, which makes it easier to keep both wheels spinning simultaneously, are desirable – for example, in cars meant for drifting.

Limited Slip Differential:

LSD’s work to combine the benefits of Open and Locked differentials through a more complicated system. There are two categories which use different forms of resistance to achieve the same effect:

Mechanical Clutch LSD:

This type of LSD surrounds the same core gearing seen in the open diff with a pair of pressure rings, which exert force on two sets of clutch plates positioned alongside the gears. This provides resistance to the independent rotation of the wheels changing the effect of the differential from open to locked – and providing it with the increased traction this type benefits from over an open differential.

Mechanical Clutch LSD’s are also further split into subtypes which behave in slightly different ways and alter when the pressure on the clutch plates and pressure rings is exerted:

The downside to mechanical LSDs is they require regular maintenance to keep operational and are prone to wearing out completely, making for an expensive part replacement.

Viscous LSD:

The second type of limited slip differential, they instead use a thick liquid in place of clutches to create the resistance needed to alter the differentials behaviour between open and locked. Due to having less moving parts than a mechanical LSD, VSLD’s are simpler but also have a wider range of advantages and disadvantages in comparison.

In their basic operation theeffect is smoother in application than mechanical LSDs, as the resistance builds in unison with the speed the wheels are travelling at in comparison to the differential case -providing a very gradual increase.

VSLDs are also able to direct torque more effectively to the wheel that has more traction. Because the fluid acts to be resistant under speed, if a wheel ever loses traction and spins the difference in speed between the two wheels inside the differential creates more resistance on the slower moving wheel - channelling more torque from the drive shaft to it.

VSLDs do become less effective with prolonged use, as the fluid heats it becomes less viscose and provides less resistance. It also cannot lock as fully as a mechanical LSD due to a fluid being unable to provide absolute resistance within an adequate space.

A disadvantage with both mechanical and viscous LSDs is that the system does not always channel torque effectively during high speed cornering, as it can interpret the faster moving outer wheel as losing traction. It then directs torque to inner wheel, generating over/understeer at the opposite moments to when it’s needed.

Torsen Differential:

The Torsen ( Tor que – Sen sing) differential employs the use of some clever gearing to produce the same effect as a limited Slip Differential without the need for clutches or fluid resistance.

It achieves this by adding a layer of worm gearing in between the traditional gear set up of an open differential. These sets of worm gears acting on each axle provide the resistance required to enable torque transfer, which it then achieves by having the worm gears in constant mesh with each other via connected spur gears.

This constant mesh between the two sides of the differential also has the added benefit of transferring the torque immediately, making it extremely responsive to changing road and driving conditions.

Whereas an open differential always has to split it’s torque split 50/50 between each wheel, the Torsen differential is capable of directing a greater percentage of torque through one wheel depending on the ratios of the gears. This removes the power limitation that open differentials suffer because the amount of torque available is not being limited by the amount traction in either wheel.

Furthermore, the gearing can also be machined to impart a different ratio of resistance when accelerating and decelerating in the same way a one and half way limited slip differential does.

This all achieved mechanically without the use of electronics or any form of perishable part being sacrificed for friction, and overall the Torsen differential is the superior mechanical system that combines the primary benefits of all the previous differential types listed.

Active Differential:

Very similar to a limited slip differential, the active differential still employs mechanisms to provide the resistance needed to transfer torque from one side to another - but rather than relying on purely mechanical force, these clutches can be electronically activated.

The active differential can use electronics to artificially alter the mechanical forces the system is experiencing through changing driving conditions. This makes them controllable and thus programmable, and by employing a range of sensors across the vehicle a computer can automatically detect which wheels to direct power too and when.

This drastically improves performance, especially over imperfect road surfaces, and is particularly favoured by rally drivers whose cars endure rapidly changing driving conditions and need a system that can keep up with their continuous adjustments to the vehicle.

Torque Vectoring Differential:

The TVD takes this electronically enhanced system even further by using it to manipulate the angle, or vector, of the vehicle in and out of the turns by encouraging specific wheels to receive more torque at key moments - improving cornering performance.

By activating the opposite clutch to what a purely mechanically driven LSD would normally engage, you can use the effect to assist with steering while putting more power down, overcoming the deficiencies in the LSD system.

On entry to the corner,amulti-way LSDexertsresistance to both wheels to at least partially lock the axle and stabilise itunder braking - which is then released as the wheelspeed drops and the vehicle turns in, allowingthe wheels to rotate atdifferent speeds .

However, instead of releasing the resistance on both wheelsa TVD continuestoactivatethe clutch on the outside wheel only -increasing the resistance experienced by that wheel and making the system channel more torque through it.This imbalance of power to the outside encourages the vehicle to turn into the corner sharper and reducing understeer.

By continuing to apply this resistance through the corner,as the vehicle passes the apex and beginsto accelerate outit will continue tooverridea normal multiway-LSD -which will again interpret the faster moving outside wheel as slipping and divert torque during acceleration to the inside wheel,which it perceives as having more grip.

With the TVD exerting more resistance onto the outside wheels clutch, ittricksthe system into diverting more torque through it -increasingthe amount power that can be applied and reducingthe understeer experienced under acceleration out of a corner.

Torque Vectoring Differential is capable of channelling 100% of the available torque through a single wheel when needed in the most extreme of circumstances.

The downside to the system is it is very complicated and very expensive, and typically only used for racing/track applications for its high speed cornering potential.

Every system has it owns benefits and disadvantages, and although the more complicated systems are generally superior they have an attached cost that far exceeds the simpler systems.

As with everything automotive, how much benefit you will gain from each system comes to down to what exactly you will be doing with your vehicle and what you need your differential to be capable of. You’re not going to have muchneed for a Torque VectoringDifferential when visiting the local supermarket, unless you fancy yourself in the next WRC and can afford the fines -but you may want a Locking Differential if you happen to live in a rural location better accessedby an off-road vehicle.


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